Annual Drinking Water Quality Report 2016

We’re pleased to present to you this year’s Annual Quality Water Report. This report is designed to inform you about the quality water and services we deliver to you every day.  Our constant goal is to provide you with a safe and dependable supply of drinking water.  We want you to understand the efforts we make to continually improve the water treatment process and protect our water resources.  We are committed to ensuring the quality of your water.  Our water source is well water pumped from four (4) well sites in the Village of Kalkaska.

I’m pleased to report that our drinking water is safe and meets federal and state requirements. We at the Village of Kalkaska strive to provide top quality water to every tap.  We ask that all our customers help us protect our water sources, which are the heart of our community, our way of life and our children’s future.

This report will not be mailed to you. If you would like a copy or have any questions about this report, please contact Village of Kalkaska office, 231-258-9191 or pick one up at 200 Hyde Street.

  • Contaminants and their presence in water: Drinking Water, including bottled water, may reasonably be expected to contain at least small amounts of some contaminants. The small amounts of some contaminants do not necessarily indicate that water poses a health risk. More information about contaminants and potential health effects can be obtained by calling the EPA’s Safe Drinking Water Hotline (800-426-4791).
  • Vulnerability of subpopulations: Some people may be more vulnerable to contaminants in drinking water than the general population. Immuno-comprised persons such as persons with cancer undergoing chemotherapy, persons who have undergone organ transplants, people with HIV/AIDS or other immune systems disorders, some elderly, and infants can be particularly at risk from infections. These people should seek advice about drinking water from their health care providers.  EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk of infection by Cryptosporidium and other

microbial contaminants are available from the Safe Drinking Water Hotline (800-426-4791).

  • Sources of Drinking Water: The sources of drinking water (both tap water and bottled water) include rivers, lakes, streams, ponds, reservoirs, springs, and wells. As water travels over the surface of the land or through the ground, it dissolves naturally occurring minerals and, in some cases, radioactive material, and can pick up substances resulting from the presence of animals or from human activity.


Your water comes from four groundwater wells, each over 120 feet deep. The State performed an assessment of our source water in 2006 to determine the susceptibility or the relative potential of contamination.  The susceptibility rating is on a seven-tiered scale from “very-low” to “very-high”, based primarily on geologic sensitivity, water chemistry, and contaminant sources.  The susceptibility of our source is high to moderately high.  We are making efforts to protect our sources by participation in the Wellhead Protection Program.  If you would like to know more about the report, please contact the Village of Kalkaska, 200 Hyde Street, Kalkaska, Michigan, (231) 258-9191.

  • Contaminants that may be present in source water include:
  • Microbial contaminants, such as viruses and bacteria, which may come from sewage treatment plants, septic systems, agricultural livestock operations and wildlife.
  • Inorganic contaminants, such as salts and metals, which can be naturally-occurring or result from urban stormwater runoff, industrial or domestic wastewater discharges, oil and gas production, mining or farming.
  • Pesticides and herbicides, which may come from a variety of sources such as agriculture and residential uses.
  • Radioactive contaminants, which are naturally occurring.
  • Organic chemical contaminants, including synthetic and volatile organic chemicals, which are by-products of industrial processes and petroleum production, and can also come from gas stations, urban stormwater runoff, and septic systems.

In order to ensure that tap water is safe to drink, EPA prescribes regulations which limit the amount of certain contaminants in water provided by public waters systems. Food and Drug Administration regulations establish limits for contaminants in bottled water, which provide the same protection for public health.

The Village of Kalkaska routinely monitors for constituents in your drinking water according to Federal and State laws. The following table (on page 2 and 3) shows the results of our monitoring for the period of January 1st to December 31st, 2016, unless otherwise noted.

In this table you find many terms and abbreviations you might not be familiar with. To help you better understand these terms we’ve provided the following definitions:

  • Parts per million (ppm) or Milligrams per liter (mg/l) – one part per million corresponds to one minute in two years or a single penny in $10,000.
  • Parts per billion (ppb or Micrograms per liter – one part per billion corresponds to one minute in 2,000 years, or a single penny in $10,000,000.
  • Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) – The highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to the MCLG as feasible using the best available treatment technology. MCL’s are set at very stringent levels. To understand the possible health effects described for many regulated constituents, a person would have to drink 2 liters of water every day at the MCL level for a lifetime to have a one-in-a-million chance of having the described health effect.
  • Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG) – The level of a contaminant in drinking water below which there is no known or expected risk to health. MCLGs allow for a margin of safety.
  • Action Level (AL) – The concentration of a contaminant, which, if exceeded, triggers treatment or other requirements, which a water system must follow.
  • Maximum residual disinfectant level, or MRDL – The highest level of a disinfectant allowed in drinking water. There is convincing evidence that addition of a disinfectant is necessary for control of microbial contaminants.
  • Maximum residual disinfectant level goal, or MRDLG – The level of a drinking water disinfectant below which there is no known or expected risk to health.
  • RAA – Running annual average.


Many constituents were tested for, but not detected in our water supply. The following constituents were detected at low, but safe levels, well below the MCL or (Maximum Contaminant Level).








Fluoride (ppm) <4 4 0.11


0.11 N Erosion of natural deposits. Discharge from fertilizer and aluminum factories.



Copper (customer taps) (ppb) (2016) <1300 *AL=1300

at 90th


120 120 N Corrosion of household plumbing systems
Lead (customer taps) (ppb) (2016) 0 **AL=15.0 at 90th


3.0 3.0 N Corrosion of household plumbing systems, erosion of natural deposits


Lead & Copper – Lead & Copper testing is on a three (3) year schedule, test results reported are from the 2016 calendar year.

* 9 out of 10 homes tested must show a concentration lower than 1300 parts per billion.

** 9 out of 10 homes tested must show a concentration lower than 15 parts per billion.


Information about lead: If present, elevated levels of lead can cause serious health problems, especially for pregnant women and young children. Lead in drinking water is primarily from materials and components associated with service lines and home plumbing.  The Village of Kalkaska is responsible for providing high quality drinking water, but cannot control the variety of materials used in plumbing components.  When your water has been sitting for several hours, you can minimize the potential for lead exposure by flushing your tap for 30 seconds to 2 minutes before using water for drinking or cooking.  If you are concerned about lead in your water, you may wish to have your water tested.  Information on lead in drinking water, testing methods, and steps you can take to minimize exposure is available from the Safe Drinking Water Hotline 1-800-426-4791or at

Free Chlorine Residual (ppm) MRDLG










Water additive used to control microbes







Total Trihalomethanes (TTHM) (ppb) (2016) N/A 80 33


33 N Disinfection Byproducts
Haloacetic Acid

(HAA5) (ppb) (2016)

N/A 60 11


11 N Disinfection Byproducts



Unregulated contaminants are those for which EPA has not established drinking water standards. The purpose of unregulated contaminant monitoring is to assist EPA in determining the occurrence of unregulated contaminants in drinking water and whether future regulation is warranted.










Sodium (ppm)   12 PPM 2016 Erosion of natural deposits